Monday, October 5, 2015

THE SHEN, YI AND ZHI AND NEEDLING IN THE NEI JING

THE SHEN, YI AND ZHI AND NEEDLING IN THE NEI JING
The Nei Jing, and especially the Ling Shu, contains very many passages with instructions to acupuncturists as to how to needle. All these passages give instructions as to how to engage the Shen, Yi or Zhi (of the practitioner) when needling.

Just as a reminder, Yi is the mental faculty of the Spleen which refers to “focusing”, “attention”, “concentrating”, “idea”. Its character is based on the Heart radical which means that this mental faculty relies on the overlapping natures of Yi and Shen (and therefore Spleen and Heart).

意 Yi
心 Xin (heart)

Zhi of the Kidneys refers to “will power”, “intention”, “resolve”, “commitment” but also “memory”, “will”. Its character is based also on the heart radical together with the character for “Shi” which means scholar, soldier, gentleman, person trained in certain field, general, officer.

志 Zhi
士 Shi (scholar, soldier, gentleman, general, officer)

What is evident from all these passages is that the results one gets depend on the skill and sensitivity of the acupuncturist deriving from his or her Shen, Yi and Zhi. They are therefore very subjective: two acupuncturists may use the same points but the results may vary depending on the subjective application of the mental faculties of Shen, Yi and Zhi.

Ling Shu, chapter 1
“When holding the needle [literally “the Dao of holding the needle”], it should be held straight and not slanting to left or right. The [acupuncturist’s] Shen should be on the tip of the needle and his/her Yi on the disease.” Some translate the last few words as “the acupuncturist should concentrate his/her mind at the needle point and take good notice of the patient”. They therefore interpret the word bing, which means “disease”, as bing ren which means “patient”.1

Another source translates this as “When inserting the needle, the doctor should concentrate his mind on the patient.” Both these translations sound plausible but both miss the clear reference of the original to text to Shen and Yi as two separate mental faculties. Shen zai qiu hao, shu Yi bing zhe.2

Both these translations miss the beautiful idea that the “Shen should be on the needle and the Yi on the disease.” This makes complete sense if we consider that the Shen, besides cognition, is responsible for what we might call “muscle memory”. Shen, Yi and Shi, all three are responsible for memory but the Shen is responsible for “intrinsic” memory, i.e. for example remembering how to sew or ride a bike as opposed to remembering events, numbers, names, etc.

Thus, the Shen being on the tip of the needle refers to the skill, sensitivity and concentration of the acupuncturist. On the other hand, the Yi is responsible also for concentration, but also focusing, cognition, studying. That the Yi should be “on the disease” is a reference to the necessity of a laser-like diagnosis, pathology and treatment of the disease. Our acupuncturist’s skill would be for nothing if our diagnosis and treatment are wrong.

Ling Shu, chapter 9
“Concentrate the Shen on one point and the Zhi on the needle.” Notice the distinction between the Shen and the Zhi, similar to that between Shen and Yi of chapter 1. This distinction is completely lost in a modern Chinese translation: “Concentrate the attention and focus the whole mind on needling.”3

This statement is in the context of the description of the optimum conditions for needling a patient. “Acupuncturists should be in an isolated quite place, carefully observing the mental state [of the patient], close all doors and windows, tranquilize the mind, concentrate the attention.”

What they translate as “tranquilize the mind” is actually “so that Hun and Po are not scattered”; and what they translate as “concentrate the attention” is actually “focusing on Yi and concentrating the Shen”.

Ling Shu, chapter 8
The famous chapter 8 of the Ling Shu (entitled Ben Shen) is frequently quoted, especially its famous opening sentence. I would like to comment briefly on that sentence and propose a different translation of it.

The opening sentence of chapter 8 of the Ling Shu is: Fan ci zhi fa, xian bi ben yu shen 凡 刺 之 法 先 必 本 于 神 and the words mean literally “every needling’s method first must be rooted in Shen”. This sentence is usually translated as: “All treatment must be based on the Spirit”. The implication of this sentence is that all treatment must be based on the Spirit (of the patient), whatever interpretation we give to the word “Spirit”.

I propose an alternative translation with two important differences. Firstly, the text uses the word ci which means “to needle”, not “to treat”. If the text had meant to use the term “to treat”, it would have used the word zhi which does occur a lot in both the Su Wen and the Ling Shu. Thus, the first difference is that the first half of the sentence is “when needling” rather than “when treating”: this is an important difference.

The second difference is that the “Shen” referred to here may be interpreted as the Shen of the practitioner, not of the patient. Therefore, the whole sentence would mean: “When needling, one must first concentrate one’s mind [Shen]”. If that “Shen” is the Shen of the practitioner, then “Mind” would be a better translation here.

This interpretation is consistent with two factors. Firstly, the Ling Shu is very much an acupuncture text and therefore the reference to concentrating when needling makes sense. Secondly, the advice to concentrate and focus when needling is also found in many other places in the Nei Jing. Indeed, the word “shen” is even used occasionally to mean “needling sensation”. Chapter16 of the Su Wen says: “In Autumn needle the skin and the space between skin and muscles: stop when the needling sensation [shen] arrives.”

There are many passages in both the Ling Shu and Su Wen that stress the importance of concentrating one’s mind when needling. Indeed, chapter 25 of the Su Wen contains a sentence that is almost exactly the same as the opening sentence of the famous chapter 8 of the Ling Shu. Chapter 25 of the Su Wen contains this sentence: “fan ci zhi zhen, bi xian zhi shen”. 凡 刺 之 真必 先 治 神]. I would translate this so: “For reliable needling, one must first control one’s mind [shen].” Note the beautiful rhyming of “zhen” with “shen”.

The English translation of the Su Wen by Li Zhao Guo simply translates this sentence as “The key point for acupuncture is to pay full attention.”4 My interpretation is corroborated by the other paragraphs in that chapter which give advice as to how to practice needling. In fact, it says that the acupuncturist should not be distracted by people around or by any noise.

Unschuld, in his new translation of the Su Wen, translates this sentence as “For all piercing to be reliable, one must first regulate the spirit.”5 This translation would contradict mine but a footnote in the same book reports the interpretation of Wang Bing (the editor of the Nei Jing): “One must concentrate one’s mind and be calm without motion. This is the central point of piercing.”6 Notice that Unschuld says “piercing” and not “treating.”

Su Wen, chapter 54
This chapter has similar recommendations about concentrating while needling. It says: “Do not dare to be careless, as if one looked down into a deep abyss. The hand must be strong as if it held a tiger. The spirit [Shen] should not be confused by the multitude of things, that is have a tranquil mind [Zhi] and observe the patient, look neither to the left nor to the right.”7

After this passage, the text says that “one [the acupuncturist] must have a positive mind [Shen] by looking into the patient’s eyes and control his/her mind [Shen] so that Qi flows smoothly.”8

The modern Chinese translation of this passage is “To keep the mind [of the patient] concentrated means to prevent [the patient] from distracting his or her attention so as to make Qi flow smoothly.” The translator here takes the first reference to “shen” as the Shen of the patient while I interpret it as the Shen of the practitioner that must be concentrated.

Note how all meaning is lost when the Chinese medicine terms are translated. The distinction between Shen, Yi and Zhi when concentrating in needling is lost when these are translated as “attention”; or translating “so that Hun and Po are not scattered” as “tranquilizing the mind”; or translating “focusing on Yi and concentrating the Shen” as “concentrating the attention”; or translating the beautiful expression “the Shen on the tip of the needle and the Yi on the disease” as “when inserting the needle the doctor should concentrate his mind on the patient”; or translating “Jing-Shen not focused and Zhi and Yi not logical” as “cannot concentrate mind or make logical analysis”9; or “when the essence spirit is not concentrated and when the mind lack understanding”10.

As for the translation of “Shen” as “spirit” or “mind”, that would require a long dissertation. Suffice to say that in all these passages “Shen” refers to “concentration”, “analysis”, “focusing”. “attention” and therefore “mind” would be a better translation of it.

Acupuncture and shamanism
Shamanism was the form of healing prevalent in China before the Warring States Period (476-221 BC). Disease was caused by invasion of evil spirits (gui) and healing was performed by shamans reciting incantations. Shamans used to do this also fending the air with arrows and spears.

The character for “medicine” (Yi) in use before the Warring States Period is made up of the radicals for “ancient weapon made of bamboo” (shu), “quiver of arrows” (yi) and “shaman” (wu). During the Warring States Period the radical for “shaman” in the pictograph of “medicine” was replaced by the radical for herbal decoction: the shaman had been replaced by the herbalist.

医 quiver of arrows
殳 bamboo weapon
巫 shaman
穴 cave, acupuncture point (xue)

Evil spirits used to reside in “caves” called xue which is the same character as “acupuncture point”. I am of the opinion that shamanism was the origin of acupuncture: I think it is a short step between fending the air with an arrow to drive out evil spirits and actually piercing the body to drive out evil spirits from the “caves” in the body. I stress this is only my intuition and I have never read any corroboration of it.

The early connection between shamanism and acupuncture in my opinion is mirrored in the many Nei Jing passages describing the skill, intuition and sensitivity of the acupuncturist depending on his/her Shen. We are not shamans but there is a “shamanistic” quality to acupuncture, it is an art and it is very subjective.

I have noticed this also when I would get excellent results and the patient would feel very much better: whenever I repeated that same acupuncture treatment, it never yielded the same results because the conditions of the first treatment (influenced by subtle, subjective factors due to my Shen and its interaction with the patient’s Shen) could not be reproduced.

It is interesting that during the Northern Song dynasty (960–1127) there was a strong movement towards establishing medical schools and editing the classics of Chinese medicine (the Nei Jing was edited three times by imperial committees). As part of this “clean-up” of medicine, there was a drive towards eliminating shamans and the shamanism that was prevalent in the South.

During the Northern Song dynasty, southerners’ medical customs and reliance on shamans were considered almost “barbaric” usually in a degree increasing with their distance from the northern centre. Their deities were labelled “demons” (gui), their religious officiants were labelled shamans (wu) and their healing practices were described as noxious.11

Song officials’ concern focused on the southerners’ preference for local shamans over physicians which was seen as the root of their ignorance of medicine. In some prefectures, prefects even forced shamans to change occupation and apply themselves to acupuncture! Their shrines were destroyed.12

If acupuncture has indeed shamanistic qualities (much more than herbal medicine), it may explain the difficulties of conducting acupuncture clinical trials. An acupuncture treatment is subject to very many variables, to the subjective state of the practitioner’s Shen, to the interaction with the patient’s Shen, to the intent, skill and sensitivity of the acupuncturist, all of which may make it difficult to conduct clinical trials, especially if they are based on a standard acupuncture “prescription”. Even in modern China, acupuncture doctors teach about directing the needling sensation simply with the power of Shen. For example, in Nanjing they taught us that, in order to direct the needling sensation downwards along a channel, we should press with the thumb behind the point and visualize with our Shen the downward movement of Qi along the channel.

END NOTES
1. Wu N L, Wu A Q Yellow Emperor’s Canon of Internal Medicine, China Science and Technology Press, Beijing, 1999, p. 495.
2. Li Z G, Liu X R, Yellow Emperor’s Canon of Medicine - Spiritual Pivot, World Publishing Corporation, Xi’an, 2008, p. 9.
3. Ibid., p. 179.
4. Li Zhao Guo (translator) Yellow Emperor’s Canon of Medicine, Library of Chinese Classics, World Publishing Corporation, Xi’an, 2005, p. 335.
5. Unschuld P U and Tessenow H, Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen – An Annotated Translation of the Huang Di’s Inner Classic – Basic Questions, Vol. I, University of California Press, Berkeley, 2011, p. 428.
6. Ibid., p. 428.
7. Unschuld, p. 19.
8. Li Zhao Guo (translator) Yellow Emperor’s Canon of Medicine, Library of Chinese Classics, World Publishing Corporation, Xi’an, 2005, p. 601.
9. Ibid., p. 1261.
10. Unschuld, p. 681.
11. Hinrichs T J, Barnes L L, Chinese Medicine and Healing, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2013, p. 109.
12. Ibid., p. 109.

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    My name is Marina Williams, I am a UK citizen, 48 years Old. I reside here in London United Kingdom.My residential address is as follows, 43 Stephen Road, Bexleyheath DA7 6EF United Kingdom, I have been in bondage, passing through pains, sorrow, heart broke, ever since my Husband left me for another woman, It was really hell for me and everybody told me to forget about him but i could not because i love him so much,I cried and sobbed every day, until it got so bad that I reached out to the Internet for help. And i saw a testimony of a spell caster who help a girl called cynthia get her ex boyfriend back, and i said let me give it a try,but I never believe because i thought all spell caster are fake,so i decided to contact him for help and he cast a love spell for me which i use in getting my Husband back and now i am a happy woman. For what you have done for me,i will not stop to share your goodness to people out there for the good work you are doing. Once again thank you Dr Frank Ojo You are truly talented and gifted. If you need his help you can reach him on his email address: Templeofloveandprosperity@gmail.com , i believed him and today i am glad to let you all know that this spell caster have the power to bring lovers back. because i am now happy with my husband.Try the Dr Frank Ojo today he we be the key or answer to your problem. Here's his contact email address: { Templeofloveandprosperity@gmail.com } Website address: http://lovespell2.yolasite.com, His Mobile number: +234)80- 7237-0762, i give you 100% guarantee that he will help you.!!

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  16. My ex-boy dumped me 6 months ago after I accused him of seeing another woman and insulting him.I want him back in my life but he refused to have any contact with me.He changed his line,block me from sending him email and facebook.I was so confuse and don't know what to do. So I reach to the internet for help and I saw a testimonies of how this powerful spell caster help them to get their ex back. So I contact the spell caster whose name is Dr Shiva and explain my problem to him and he cast a spell for me and assure me of 2days that my ex will return to me, and to my greatest surprise the Second day my ex came knocking at my door and ask me to forgive him.I am so happy that my love is back again. Once again thank you Dr Shiva,you are truly talented and gifted. Email: reunitingexspell@yahoo.com . He is the only answer to your problems.He can be of great help and I will not stop publishing his name for the good work he did for me andpeople are still talking about him on the Internet. REUNITINGEXSPELL@YAHOO.COM

    ReplyDelete
  17. I was crushed when my lover of three years left to be with another woman. I
    cried and sobbed every day, until it got so bad that I reached out to the
    Internet for help.And i saw a testimony of a spell caster who help a girl
    called michelle and i said let me give it a try so i contact him for help
    and he cast a love spell for me which i use in getting my lover back and now
    i am a happy woman.For what you have done for me,i will not stop to share
    your goodness to people out there for the good work you are doing.I hope
    God blesses you as much as you have help me to get my Love back,visit him
    on wisdomspelltemple1@gmail.com is the only answer to your problems
    EMILIANO BABARAH_USA

    ReplyDelete
  18. Hello Everybody,
    My name is Mrs Sharon Sim. I live in Singapore and i am a happy woman today? and i told my self that any lender that rescue my family from our poor situation, i will refer any person that is looking for loan to him, he gave me happiness to me and my family, i was in need of a loan of S$250,000.00 to start my life all over as i am a single mother with 3 kids I met this honest and GOD fearing man loan lender that help me with a loan of S$250,000.00 SG. Dollar, he is a GOD fearing man, if you are in need of loan and you will pay back the loan please contact him tell him that is Mrs Sharon, that refer you to him. contact Dr Purva Pius,via email:(urgentloan22@gmail.com) Thank you.

    BORROWERS APPLICATION DETAILS


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    Managements
    Email Kindly Contact: urgentloan22@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
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  21. This is the most wonderful thing i have ever experienced. I visited a forum here on the internet on the 17 APRIL 2016, and i saw a marvelous testimony of Tracie Aldana from United States on the forum about the good works DR OSEMU. I never believed it, because have never heard anything about such miracle before. No body would have been able to convince me about it not until DR OSEMU did a marvelous work for me that restored my marriage of 4 years by getting back my divorced wife just as i read on the internet. Am Brooklyn Gray from USA. I was truly shocked when my wife knelt down pleading for forgiveness to accept her back. I am really short of words to use to show my appreciation to DR OSEMU. For his a God sent to me and my entire family for divine restoration of marriage. Contact him now for any kind or help via Email: Doctorokpamenspelltemple@hotmail.com, website: www.doctorokpamenpowerfulspelltemple@webs.com OR call and whats App him on +2348135254384. You can text or call me also for more inquiries +1 (914)-902-7078.

    ReplyDelete
  22. HOW I WAS CURE WITH HERBS
    My name is Mrs Tina Jose am from Mexico I have been suffering from asthma , i was leaving with it for years with inhaler but all I ever wanted was to get rid of it permanently until i was directed to Dr Okosun for herbal mixture he helped me with it then i took it for just one week now am physically fit all thanks to him he is one of the best herbalist if you have any similar health problem like asthma,diabetes, stomach ulcer and some other S.T.D contact him today on email okosunjustice909@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  23. Good day everyone, my name is Mrs. Aaisha Muhammad I have been in a total confusion since my second son attempt to rape a young girl in the next compound and he was arrested and sent to jail since 2013. I have tried so many lawyers and I have seen so many pastors for help but all proved abortive until somebody introduce me to one PA OBA.

    At first I taught all my hope was lost because the lawyers and pastors was not able to help me to bring out my son out of jail. But later I put up courage and I visit http://obastarspell.webs.com, and I saw some testimony from some people that benefit help on the website, I just decide to email him and tell him my problem.

    After few days he replied me and asked some questions and I answer the questions and he told me somethings I need to do and I did everything as he instructed. But now guess what? My son that has been arrested since 2013 has just been released to me on the 21 lats month. This is really amazing.

    If you are have any problem and you are confused and you do not know what to do, just try PA OBA and contact him on obastarspell@gmail.com or visit http://obastarspell.webs.com for more info he can help you out of that your problems.

    ReplyDelete
  24. Hi everyone, I'm so excited.
    My ex-boyfriend is back after a breakup,I’m extremely happy that will are living together again.
    My name is Mary Wilkie from England.
    My boyfriend of a 4yr just broke up with me and am 30 weeks pregnant.I have cried my self to sleep most of the nights and don’t seem to concentrate during lectures sometimes I stay awake almost all night thinking about him and start to cry all over again.Because of this I end up not having energy for my next day’s classes ,my attendance has dropped and am always in uni and on time.Generally he is a very nice guy ,he ended it because he said we were arguing a lot and not getting along.He is right we’ve been arguing during the pregnancy a lot .After the break up I kept ringing him and telling him I will change.I am in love with this guy and he is the best guy I have ever been with.I’m still hurt and in disbelief when he said he didn’t have any romantic feelings towards me anymore that hurt me faster than a lethal syringe.He texts me now and then mainly to check up on how am doing with the pregnancy,he is supportive with it but it’s not fair on me, him texting me as I just want to grieve the pain and not have any stress due to the pregnancy.i was really upset and i needed help, so i searched for help online and I came across a website that suggested that Dr Unity can help solve marital problems, restore broken relationships and so on. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he told me what to do and i did it then he did a spell for me. 28 hours later, my bf came to me and apologized for the wrongs he did and promise never to do it again. Ever since then, everything has returned back to normal. I and my bf are living together happily again.. All thanks to Dr Unity. If you have any problem contact Dr.Unity now and i guarantee you that he will help you.Email him at: Unityspelltemple@gmail.com ,you can also call him or add him on Whats-app: +2348071622464 ,His website: http://unityspelltemple.yolasite.com .

    ReplyDelete
  25. My ex-boyfriend is back after a breakup, I’m extremely happy that will are living together again.
    I' m Mary from England, My boyfriend of a 4yr just broke up with me and am 30 weeks pregnant.I have cried my self to sleep most of the nights and don’t seem to concentrate during lectures sometimes I stay awake almost all night thinking about him and start to cry all over again.Because of this I end up not having energy for my next day’s classes ,my attendance has dropped and am always in uni and on time. Generally he is a very nice guy ,he ended it because he said we were arguing a lot and not getting along.He is right we’ve been arguing during the pregnancy a lot .After the break up I kept ringing him and telling him I will change.I am in love with this guy and he is the best guy I have ever been with.I’m still hurt and in disbelief when he said he didn’t have any romantic feelings towards me anymore that hurt me faster than a lethal syringe.He texts me now and then mainly to check up on how am doing with the pregnancy,he is supportive with it but it’s not fair on me, him texting me as I just want to grieve the pain and not have any stress due to the pregnancy.i was really upset and i needed help, so i searched for help online and I came across a website that suggested that Dr Unity can help solve marital problems, restore broken relationships and so on. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he told me what to do and i did it then he did a spell for me. 28 hours later, my bf came to me and apologized for the wrongs he did and promise never to do it again. Ever since then, everything has returned back to normal. I and my bf are living together happily again.. All thanks to Dr Unity. If you have any problem contact Dr.Unity now and i guarantee you that he will help you. Email him at: Unityspelltemple@gmail.com ,you can also call him or add him on Whats-app: +2348071622464 ,His website: http://unityspelltemple.yolasite.com .

    ReplyDelete
  26. As a sign of gratitude for how my husband was saved from asthma , i decided to reach out to those still suffering from this.
    My husband suffered asthma and it was really tough and heartbreaking for me because he was my all and the symptoms were terrible, we tried various therapies prescribed by our neurologist but none could cure him. I searched for a cure and i saw a testimony by someone who was cured and so many other with similar body problem, and he left the contact of the doctor who had the herbal cure to asthma . I never imagined asthma has a cure not until i contacted him and he assured me my husband will be fine. I got the herbal medication he recommended and my husband used it and in one months he was fully okay even up till this moment he is so full of life. asthma has a cure and it is a herbal cure contact the doctor for more info on drwilliams098765@gmail.com on how to get the medication. Thanks for reading my story

    ReplyDelete
  27. Hello,everyone i want to thank Dr mustafa for what he did for me,few years ago my husband left me and 3kids,so my friend told me that there is a great spell caster called Dr mustafa who can bring back my ex husband back within 48hour,and i contacted this great man called Dr mustafa and he told me what i will do for he to bring back my husband and i did what he said and my husband came back to me and my kids. if you need a help contact this powerful spell caster on is dr.mustafa86@yahoo.com.

    He specialized in the following below:

    1. Getting your lover or husband back
    2. Spiritual bulletproof
    3. Lottery Spell
    4. Money spell
    5. Long life spell
    6. Prosperity spell
    7. Protection spell
    8. Get a job spell
    9. Becoming a manager spell
    10. Get a huge loan without paying any fee spell
    11. Getting your scam money back
    12. Child spell
    13. Pregnancy spell
    14. Freedom spell
    15. Love spell
    16, vanishing spell
    17. Invisible human spell
    18. Success or pass spell
    19. Marriage spell
    20. Avenging spell
    21. Popularity spell
    22. Killing spell
    23. Cancer spell
    24. Supernatural power spell
    25. Madness spell
    26. Free house loan spell
    27. Production spell of films and movie
    28. Hiv/Aids Cure spell
    29. Tuberculosis spell
    30. Loose weight and body spell

    Contact him now via: dr.mustafa86@yahoo.com

    ReplyDelete
  28. As a sign of gratitude for how my husband was saved from asthma , i decided to reach out to those still suffering from this.
    My husband suffered asthma and it was really tough and heartbreaking for me because he was my all and the symptoms were terrible, we tried various therapies prescribed by our neurologist but none could cure him. I searched for a cure and i saw a testimony by someone who was cured and so many other with similar body problem, and he left the contact of the doctor who had the herbal cure to asthma . I never imagined asthma has a cure not until i contacted him and he assured me my husband will be fine. I got the herbal medication he recommended and my husband used it and in one months he was fully okay even up till this moment he is so full of life. asthma has a cure and it is a herbal cure contact the doctor for more info on drwilliams098765@gmail.com on how to get the medication. Thanks for reading my story

    ReplyDelete
  29. My Brothers and Sister all over the world, I am Mrs Boo Wheat from Canada ; i was in need of loan some month ago. i needed a loan to open my restaurant and bar, when one of my long time business partner introduce me to this good and trustful loan lender DR PURVA PIUS that help me out with a loan, and is interest rate is very low , thank God today. I am now a successful business woman, and I became useful. In the life of others, I now hold a restaurant and bar. And about 30 workers, thank GOD for my life I am leaving well today a happy father with three kids, thanks to you DR PURVA PIUS Now I can take care of my lovely family, i can now pay my bill. I am now the bread winner of my family. If you are look for a trustful and reliable loan leader. You can Email him via,mail {PurvaPius22@gmail.com} Please tell him Mrs Boo Wheat from Canada introduce you to him. THANKS

    ReplyDelete
  30. God bless Dr.Edion for his marvelous work in my life, I was separate with my husband for the pass 3 year now and I wasn't satisfied i needed to get my husband back because the life of loneliness was so terrible for me and my 2 kids I searched about some possible spell caster that can bring back lover and i then come across Dr. Edion i saw a comment about Dr.Edion,how he bring lovers together with his spell caster I contacted him and he guided me. I asked for solutions, he started the remedy for my spell he ask for some information which i sent to him and also told some few things to do, after 48 hours my husband call me and start bagging me for forgiveness for all that happens i am so happy right now that we are back again as one family. If you are in the same situation right now and you don't know what to do or where to go, you can contact Dr. Edion today on ediontempl@gmail.com he can help you out of that you situation.

    ReplyDelete